The Conflux Protocol is defined and analyzed in a number of research papers.
The Protocol Specification serves as a reference of the Conflux protocol. It describes the ledger structure, the consensus mechanism, Proof of Work, the incentive mechanism, and many others aspects of the system.
This paper presents Conflux, a scalable and decentralized blockchain system that provides high throughput and fast confirmation. Conflux operates on a novel consensus protocol which optimistically processes concurrent blocks without discarding any forks and adaptively assigns weights to blocks based on their topology in the Conflux ledger structure (called Tree-Graph). The adaptive weight mechanism enables Conflux to detect and thwart liveness attack by automatically switching between an optimistic strategy for fast confirmation in normal scenarios and a conservative strategy to ensure consensus progress during liveness attacks.
This paper has been published at https://arxiv.org/. In it, we present a new consensus protocol named GHAST (Greedy Heaviest Adaptive Sub-Tree) which organizes blocks in a Tree-Graph structure (i.e., a directed acyclic graph (DAG) with a tree embedded) that allows fast and concurrent block generation.
This is a technical presentation about Conflux's main ideas and architecture, you can find how it's designed, and how Conflux achieves safety against double spending attacks and robustness against liveness attacks.